History of Earth Humans
|below excerpt from: http://rainbow.ldeo.columbia.edu/courses/v1001/7.html|
Earth’s First 3.7 Billion Years. IN THE BEGINNING THERE WAS A SINGULARITY.
No time or space; our present physical laws did not apply. Then about 12-20 billion years ago or so, the Universe rapidly expanded from a tiny dot to a rapidly expanding thing we call the universe in the ___
At first there was just Hydrogen. The Hydrogen condensed into billions of local large balls of super-dense Hydrogen in which fusion reactions forming Helium began and stars were born. Other elements up to the atomic weight of Iron were produced in these stars.About 5 to 6 billion years ago. One of these stars began to run out of Hydrogen fuel. It expanded to a red giant and then collapsed on itself and exploded in a supernova. In this supernova, like billions that have occurred elsewhere in our Universe, all of the other elements were created.
|II. The mass of new matter again collapsed into a disk shape mass of dust and gas (a). The center became superheated and formed a new star, our sun (b). From this disk of matter the planets began to condense (c), according to the widely supported nebular hypothesis of Immanuel Kant and Pierre-Simon Laplace. The two strongest points in favor of this idea are: 1) that the disk began by rotating in one direction and the rotation of all of the planets around the sun follows the original disk; and 2) that because the disk flattened out as time progresses, all of the orbits of the planets (except Pluto) lie more or less in the same plane (d). Pluto is possibly a captured giant asteroid. |
III. The earth condensed in four basic steps. 1) It began to accrete from the nebular cloud as particles smashed into each other forming so-called planetesimals. These in turn collided with each other and as their mass grew began to gather material from the nebular disk. 2) As the mass of the Earth grew so did it’s gravitational force and the Earth began to compress itself into a smaller and denser body. This happened about 4.5 billion years ago. 3) In the third step the compression itself began to heat the interior of the Earth; also there was heat generated by radioactive decay. The interior of the earth began to melt. Because iron is the heaviest of the common elements that make up the Earth, as the Earth began to melt droplets of melted iron began to sink towards the center of the earth, where they condensed. 4) Proceeding slowly at first it sped up to catastrophic proportions – hence it is called the iron catastrophe. Note that 3 and 4 in the figures to the right are cross sections.
It was the iron catastrophe that set up the overall structure of the Earth.
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